Greater Greater Washington

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Bicycling


15th Street cycletrack gets s*** on ... literally

Bicyclists can often feel like people treat their infrastructure like crap, such as parking in the lanes on a regular basis and construction closing them without offering an alternative route. But now, people are literally moving their bowels instead of their bicycles on part of the 15th Street cycletrack:


Photo by @KG_DC on Twitter reposted with permission.

This portable toilet appeared astride the cycletrack on Vermont Avenue near H Street this morning, next to the Department of Veterans' Affairs. After Twitter user KG posted the photo, Darren Buck at DDOT sent a permit inspector to deal with it.

This isn't the first time bike lanes have encountered the brown stuff, but thus far it's been from animals: Horses occasionally drop manure in the cycletracks.

One common response to things like this is to suggest cyclists "just go around" the offending obstacle. But each incident forces people on bikes to ride into a space that either a driver or pedestrian thinks is "theirs," creating opportunities for anger and for dangerous crashes.

As Shane Farthing from the Washington Area Bicyclist Association said at a DC council hearing yesterday,

Despite progress in infrastructure, enforcement, and other protections, the DC bicyclist still, on a daily basis, faces the conundrum of the angry motorist shouting at her to get off the street and the angry pedestrian shouting at her to get off the sidewalk.
And even when cyclists get a small space of their own, some people treat it like a toilet.

Roads


How a road in White Flint is like a ski area

White Flint's master plan calls for a pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly road. The Montgomery County DOT (MCDOT) is disregarding that plan and says it can only build such a road once traffic declines. That's a backward way to look at changing travel patterns.


Photo by Owen Richard on Flickr.

Would you build safe ski trails only after novice skiers showed up?

People for Bikes uses an excellent ski area metaphor to explain why creating a complete grid of safe walking and cycling infrastructure is so critical. Especially in suburban areas, bicycling and walking most places would be considered a black diamond adventure, not for the faint of heart.

Ski areas design their trails so that the vast majority of people who are not expert skiers can find a safe and easy way all the way to the bottom. No ski area would build only black diamond runs and then announce that it would be happy to create some green circles, but only once there are already a lot of novice skiers on the mountain. The novice skiers only come when there are appropriate trails for them. The same goes for walkers and cyclists.

DC has proven that changes to street designs cause shifts in travel patterns. Its transportation department has invested heavily in a network of new bike lanes and protected cycle tracks in recent years. Just last week, new census figures showed that the number of bike commuters in DC shot up from 2.2% in 2009 to 4.5% in 2013, placing DC second only to Portland.

DC didn't wait to prove that there were a lot of cyclists on a particular road before making it safe for cyclists. Instead, it made cycling more attractive, and the cyclists showed up.


Old Georgetown Road in White Flint. Photo by dan reed! on Flickr.

Road designs drive change; they don't need to wait for change

The White Flint Sector Plan, which came out of a long planning process, extensive public input, and county council action, clearly calls for a four-lane road with bike lanes, sidewalks, and a shared-use path that's part of a Recreation Loop.

County transportation officials are instead planning road that's eight lanes if you count block-long turn lanes, with no bike lanes and no Recreation Loop path. They say state rules require a wider road in White Flint until traffic levels decline, when they could rebuild the road to match the plan.

The logic of re-building a road twice makes little sense. If this is really a state requirement, then White Flint provides the perfect opportunity to change or get an exception to whatever regulation prevents the safe street design promised to residents.

The goal of the White Flint sector plan is unmistakable. The first sentence reads, "this Sector Plan vision establishes policies for transforming an auto-oriented suburban development pattern into an urban center of residences and businesses where people walk to work, shops and transit."

More specifically, the plan aims to increase the number of residents getting around without a car from 26% to 50%. It should go without saying that the county will never reach those goals if it spends its limited dollars making it more difficult for people to walk and bike.

But MCDOT and the state are focusing first and foremost on moving cars. If land use changes and a better-connected road grid also make car traffic decline, they maybe they will redesign the roads to accommodate those pedestrians.

This is the wrong approach. The road design inherently encourages or discourages people from walking or biking. When people see a brand new, wide open road, they see it's easier to drive and are more likely to do so. When they know there's a wide, safe path all the way to Metro, they are more likely to opt to bike or walk. Conversely, when they have to cross eight lanes of hot pavement only to walk on a dirt path where the sidewalk is missing or there's just a narrow sidewalk next to high speed traffic, they make that choice only if they have to.

As White Flint community leader Ed Reich wrote, "I know that having to cross a road that wide will be a substantial deterrent to going to Pike & Rose, despite the great restaurants and shops starting to open there."

Travel patterns already are changing

While it's a mistake to wait for patterns to shift before making roads safe for non-auto users, the patterns in fact are already shifting anyway.

In the last ten years, Montgomery County added 100,000 residents while driving leveled off and started to decline.


Montgomery County's population has grown, but the amount of driving miles hasn't. Graph from the Montgomery County Planning Department.

Meanwhile, as more people have begun to move into the White Flint area, Census data shows that already 34% percent of residents in the surrounding census tract are commuting by transit, carpooling, walking, or cycling, and 58% own one or zero cars.

White Flint can transform into a walkable, bikeable, transit-oriented area. But to do that, it needs roads that match this vision, rather than ones that hold the vision back.

Events


Events roundup: happy hours, hearings, and more

If you're a bike enthusiast, history buff, or social media nerd, heads-up! There are terrific events coming up that you should check out. Do some family biking, speak up at a hearing, or have a drink and nerd out about social media.


Photo by Oregon DOT on Flickr.

All that and more is coming up our events calendar in the coming days, so read on and mark your calendar.

Kidical Mass: Enjoy the fall air and some family-friendly exercise this Sunday with Kidical Mass Alexandria, which hosts family-friendly cycling outings. Sunday starting at 11 am, join fellow families at Jones Point Park in Alexandria to ride the Woodrow Wilson bridge over to Maryland, and grab some frozen custard on the way back.

Contributory negligence: Did our explanation of contributory negligence for cyclists and pedestrians rile you up? If it did, Monday at lunchtime attend the DC Council committee hearing for the bill. If you plan to speak, be sure to connect with WABA and let them know!

Chat about engagement with APA: As the American Planning Association wraps up their policy conference on Monday night, join GGW's own Aimee Custis, Andy Le from DC Water, and other great digital strategists for an informal happy hour at Busboys and Poets (5th & K) starting at 6 pm. Talk about digital community engagement, pick up a few pointers, and make some new connections. No RSVP required.

Alexandria bicycle/pedestrian planning: Tuesday night, Alexandria is starting the public process for an update to its bicycle and pedestrian master plan. In light of the controversy over installing bike lanes and pedestrian improvements on western King Street earlier this year, it's likely the update process will be contentious. Make sure voices for walking and biking are represented by attending the meeting at TC Williams High School starting at 7 pm.

S Street book talk: On October 1, head over to MLK Library at 6:30 pm for "S Street Rising: Crack, Murder, and Redemption in DC". Take a look at a dark chapter of DC's past, listening to former Washington Post reporter and drug addict Ruben Castaneda talk about his experiences covering crime, drugs, and the city itself.

Bicycling


A new cycletrack will connect 1st Street NE to the Metropolitan Branch Trail

DDOT has started construction on a short cycletrack on M Street NE, to connect an entrance to the Metropolitan Branch Trail to the First Street NE cycletrack.


M Street cycletrack plan. Image by DDOT.

The new cycletrack will be on the south side of the street, and will function like an extension of the existing 1st Street cycletrack. Both parking stops and plastic bollards will protect cyclists in the bike lane, just like on 1st Street. This will replace all 16 metered parking spaces on the block.

Running only a single block, the new cycletrack ends just prior to where M Street passes under the railroad tracks, where there's an entrance to the Metropolitan Branch Trail.

A new ramp is under construction at that spot, to allow bicyclists to cross the sidewalk and access the trail entrance.

For cyclists continuing east under the tracks, DDOT officials will paint sharrows in M Street's traffic lanes.

At one point on M Street, the cycletrack squeezes down to a narrow 6 feet wide. This is to accommodate the wide turning radius of trucks entering and exiting the Harris Teeter loading dock on the north side of the street. The narrow section will have plastic bollards but no parking stops.

Other bike projects in NoMa

This block-long cycletrack is part of a trio of projects DDOT is working on to fill in the gaps of NoMa's bike lane network.

Earlier this summer, DDOT officials added bike lanes to the 100 block of F Street NE. Next up, they'll rebuild 1st Street NE between Massachusetts Avenue and G Street, next to Union Station, to add a cycletrack and wider sidewalks.

Sometime further in the future, DDOT could potentially extend this new M Street cycletrack west to North Capitol Street or beyond, and east to 4th Street or Florida Avenue.

Roads


Montgomery DOT ignores promises to the community and sabotages the White Flint plan

When the White Flint Sector Plan was adopted in 2010 after years of collaboration between residents, property owners, county officials, and civic leaders, it was hailed as a triumph of responsible, sustainable development. Now, county engineers are poised to undo years of work by pushing through a road design that does not include any of the elements the plan promised the community.


MCDOT's proposed design for Old Georgetown Road would make it even more unfriendly for pedestrians than it is today. Image from Google Maps.

Transforming White Flint into a vibrant, walkable area requires balancing new development, which brings growth and amenities, with the pressure to move through traffic around the area. It does this with a multi-modal transportation network that diffuses traffic across a new street grid, known as the Western Workaround. That will relieve traffic on Rockville Pike while providing safe and attractive ways to get around on foot, bike or transit.

Because these elements are so important to the plan's success, it prescribes specific details including the number of lanes, speed limits, and the location and character of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. For Old Georgetown Road between Executive Boulevard and Rockville Pike the plan is unequivocal: it should have four lanes (two in each direction), on-street bike lanes in both directions, sidewalks and a broad shared-use path, which forms part of a sector-wide Recreation Loop.


Planned bike lanes and walking/cycling paths in White Flint. Map from the Montgomery County Planning Department.

The County Planning Board and County Council both passed this plan, with all its specifics, and the community overwhelmingly supported it. Despite all this, the Montgomery County Department of Transportation (MCDOT) designed a road that has no bike lanes, no shared-use path, and widens the road to one that is effectively eight lanes wide, and has nearly advanced that version of the project to the 70% design stage.

This will create an Old Georgetown Road that is even less safe for bikers and pedestrians than it is today. It also leaves a gaping hole in the Recreation Loop, one of the area's signature planned amenities.

MCDOT splits hairs to excuse a dangerous design

In trying to defend their plan, MCDOT officials argue that their design technically contains only two travel lanes in each direction. The additional lanes, which extend nearly the entire length of the roadway, are "merely turning lanes."

This obfuscation may hold water for traffic engineers, but for anyone unlucky enough to bike or walk along the road, that distinction provides little comfort. Under the MCDOT proposal, a pedestrian must traverse eight lanes of traffic to get across Old Georgetown Road. For cyclists, the lack of dedicated lanes means they must take their chances staying safe among four lanes of traffic.


Comparison of the two cross-sections. Rendering from of Friends of White Flint. Click for larger version showing more of the road.

In reality, the effect of this design will be even more pernicious. By prioritizing driving over everything else, MCDOT will fulfill its own skewed vision for mobility in the county: fewer people will walk, bike or take transit, even though they want to but won't feel safe. They'll, instead, choose to drive for every single trip, adding to congestion and undermining the entire premise of the White Flint Sector Plan redevelopment.

Even more galling, MCDOT has proposed redesigning Old Georgetown Road twice: once now to maximize auto traffic, and again, sometime in the future, to incorporate the elements in the sector plan only if conditions warrant and funding is available.

Drivers struck 454 pedestrians in the county last year. 13 were killed. Just this summer, a pedestrian was killed crossing the Pike down by North Bethesda Market. I frequently receive emails from residents concerned for their safety on and along Old Georgetown Road. These are the stark consequences of MCDOT's "windshield mentality."

With this action, the county government breaks the community's trust

Safe bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and a Recreation Loop were key elements that helped the plan gain public support. Since the plan passed, White Flint residents have consistently voiced their support for safer bike/pedestrian accommodations.

The Western Workaround is the first of many planned transportation and infrastructure improvements in the White Flint area. If MCDOT is willing to push through a design for this project that so plainly violates the sector plan, how can the public trust the agency will implement any other pieces of the plan faithfully?

The residents and stakeholders of White Flint deserve better. Please join the Friends of White Flint and Coalition for Smarter Growth in calling on County Executive Ike Leggett to uphold the promises made to the community and hold MCDOT accountable.

Bicycling


What is "contributory negligence," and why is it such a big danger for cyclists and pedestrians?

Say you are riding along on your bicycle. Your tail light battery dies one evening, and then a texting driver crashes into you. Can you recover your medical costs from the driver?


Photo by Moff on Flickr.

Or, say you are on foot and need to cross a street where the nearest crosswalks are far away. But then a drunk driver speeds by and hits you.

Or, you're biking and get doored. A police officer, confused about the law, incorrectly tickets you for riding too close to parked cars.

Unfortunately, you may not be able to collect any compensation for your smashed-up bike, your broken leg, or the days of work you missed. That's because of a legal doctrine called contributory negligence.

Only four states (Maryland and Virginia among them) and the District of Columbia retain this outdated legal doctrine. Fortunately, a bill in the DC Council aims to correct this in the District, at least for bicyclists. There's a hearing this Monday, September 29.

How does contributory negligence work?

Generally, after a crash between a motorist and a bicyclist or pedestrian, there is an injured bicyclist or pedestrian and an uninjured motorist. The cyclist or pedestrian often will seek compensation for injuries from the motorist and the motorist's insurer.

If everyone involved agrees that the cyclist or pedestrian behaved perfectly and the driver was completely at fault, the cyclist will be able to recover compensation. Unfortunately, such agreement is rare. If the cyclist or pedestrian was at fault to any degree, he or she will not be able to recover compensation for injuries suffered in the crash.

This is true even if the crash was only 1% the cyclist or pedestrian's fault, 99% the driver's fault, and all of the injuries were suffered by the cyclist or pedestrian. For this reason, it is often called the "one percent" rule.

The cyclist or pedestrian is likely out of luck if the insurer or a police officer believes the cyclist or pedestrian was at fault through misunderstanding or misapplying the law. In rare cases, the injured person can find video proof that he was not breaking a law, but if that's not possible, insurers can and generally do treat a ticket from a police officer as evidence enough that the cyclist or pedestrian was at least slightly at fault.

What's being done about it?

DC Councilmember David Grosso recently introduced the "Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Collision Recovery Amendment Act of 2014″ with Councilmembers Mary Cheh and Tommy Wells also co-introducing the bill. It would update DC law to the fairer, more modern Comparative Negligence standard for crashes between drivers and bicyclists. This means if you're in this situation on a bicycle, your compensation would be reduced to the extent that you were responsible for the crash, but not eliminated entirely.

For example: A motorist exiting her vehicle at night opens her driver's side door into the bike lane, striking a cyclist who had no light at night. The motorist's door is not damaged and the motorist is unharmed, but the cyclist suffers a broken arm from the fall and ends up with $1,000 in medical bills.

Under the present contributory negligence standard, the cyclist's failure to have a light would prevent her from any recovering any damages, even though the motorist broke the law by opening her door into traffic.

Under the new bill, the decision-maker (whether judge, jury, or insurance adjuster) would have to determine the proportionate fault of the parties and determine the damages accordingly. So, if the decision-maker finds that the driver opening her door into the bike lane without looking was 75% responsible for the injury and the cyclist's failure to have a light was 25% responsible for the injury, the injured cyclists could recover 75% of her damages, or $750 in this scenario.

Can this bill cover pedestrians as well?

At the moment, the bill as introduced only applies to crashes between drivers and bicyclists. However, pedestrian advocacy group All Walks DC has worked with Grosso's staff to write an amendment to the bill to cover pedestrians, which he will introduce in committee.

Have other states changed their negligence standard?

Contributory negligence came to the US from English common law. But over time, many courts or states changed the standard to the fairer comparative one through caselaw or legislation.

Today, 45 states and the federal court system have adopted comparative negligence as a basis for apportioning fault between parties in tort suits. Currently, just four states (including both Maryland and Virginia) and the District of Columbia continue to use contributory negligence as a bar to recovery and access to courts.

Is there any precedent in current law for an exemption such as this?

Yes. Current District of Columbia law extends the additional legal protection of comparative negligence to railroad workers.

Who benefits or loses out if this bill becomes law?

Cyclists and motorists alike benefit from having damages equitably distributed after from a collision. (Pedestrians would as well if the bill expanded to cover them).

Insurance companies, on the other hand, presently do not have to pay for the negligence of the drivers they insure if they hit a cyclist or pedestrian who has been negligent to even the smallest degree. Under a different standard, they would pay.

Contributory negligence is not an economically efficient or fair method for determining compensation after crashes. It does not compensate injured parties who were not primarily responsible for their injuries. It allows the insurers of the primarily negligent party to avoid compensating the injured.

This happened to me! How can I help?

If you or other bicyclists or pedestrians you know have been hit and had an insurance claim reduced or denied, please consider testifying at the hearing Monday, September 29 at 12:30 pm. To sign up to testify, email Nicole Goines at ngoines@dccouncil.us or call 202-724-7808.

Transit


On Car-Free Day, residents yearn for the Purple Line

Yesterday was Car-Free Day. For many residents of Montgomery County, it will be a lot easier to make important trips without a car when the Purple Line is built.


Proposed UMD Campus Center stop. Image from Maryland MTA via the Washington Post.

University of Maryland student Sareana Kimia live-tweeted her two-bus commute from Rockville to the College Park campus and compared it to what her commute would be like with the planned light rail line from Bethesda to New Carrollton.

That night, she and Montgomery County Councilmember George Leventhal co-hosted a Twitter chat about the Purple Line with the Action Committee for Transit and Montgomery County Young Democrats. Her commute exemplified many of the challenges that transit riders face.

Like so many commuters, she began her trip desperately hoping to catch her busand in need of accurate, live time transit information.

Her bus was 10 minutes late. In contrast, the Purple Line will run every 6 minutes in rush hour.

Sareana takes the RideOn 5 to Silver Spring to pick up the UMD Shuttle. Delegate Al Carr suggested what might be a faster route, and Sareana explained the economics behind her transit choices:

When Sareana arrived in downtown Silver Spring, she related a standard bus riding nightmare:

Although she made her UMD Shuttle, Sareana was still 12 minutes late for her 9 am class, despite having begun her commute 1.5 hours earlier. She would have arrived 39 minutes earlier via the Purple Linewith a smoother ride.

Her afternoon commute once again illustrated the importance of frequency in making transit convenient.

Her afternoon commute also demonstrated how horrible traffic can be in this area, even when the weather is perfect:

At 6 pm, she joined Councilmember George Leventhal on Twitter to discuss the Purple Line. Leventhal shared how the Purple Line would improve his commute from Takoma Park to Rockville.

Marc Korman quizzed Leventhal on the Public Private Partnership process that will build the Purple Line.

Korman also asked about state and county cooperation.

Leventhal discussed a "Purple Line Compact" being developed by the Purple Line Corrider Coalition, that would "ensure residents know what to expect from" the Purple Line. It is based on compacts drawn up in Denver, Minneapolis and Baltimore, among others, before light rail lines are built.

The goal is to release the Purple Line Compact by the end of the year.

The Silver Spring Transit Center Twitter account made a poignant contribution during the chat:

Leventhal noted that the Montgomery County Council would get an update on the Purple Line next Tuesday, September 30. He ended the chat on an upbeat note:

Transit


The Circulator could go more places and be more frequent

The DC Circulator could soon go to Howard University, Southwest Waterfront, Congress Heights, and the Cathedral. But to do that, it'll need more buses. More than that, it needs more buses now to actually deliver on the service every 10 minutes that is a key hallmark of the Circulator.


Circulators in central DC. Image from DDOT. Click for full map.

The District Department of Transportation (DDOT) released an updated plan for the Circulator system. That plan emphasizes that the Circulator is more than just "a nicer and cheaper bus," but it means some specific things which couldn't apply to any bus route, like:

  • It connects key activity centers that have all-day transit demand (as opposed to, say, neighborhoods of mostly commuters);
  • Buses run every 10 minutes, all day (which makes sense only because of the activity centers);
  • The routes are easy to understand
  • (Also, the bus is nicer and cheaper)
But as for "every 10 minutes," the Circulator is not really achieving that now. The wait is more than 15 minutes 20.47% of the time, according to the plan. It doesn't even say how often the wait is more than 10 minutes, because the metrics have been set to consider any wait under 15 minutes "on time." (I've asked DDOT to clarify why that is and will update the post when I hear back.)

On the Dupont Circle-Georgetown-Rosslyn route, "actual headways average over 11 minutes, and up to 13 in the PM peak period." 11 is the average on Union Station-Navy Yard as well. On Potomac Avenue-Skyland, the time between buses is more than 15 minutes one-third of the time.

But enough about the piddling task of actually running the existing buses efficientlywhere will they go next?

The Mall: The Circulator will go on the National Mall in 2015, in partnership with the National Park Service (and thanks to some revenue from meters on the Mall). In the first year, DDOT estimates 880,900 people will ride this line.

The Cathedral: Councilmember Mary Cheh (Ward 3) put money in the budget to extend the Circulator on Wisconsin Avenue from its terminus at Whitehaven Street to the Cathedral. On a survey, 60% of people said this was an important destination, but DDOT says, "the extension itself performs very poorly, with only 13 boardings per hour, high subsidy per passenger, and low farebox recovery ratio."

In the longer run, DDOT proposes splitting this route into two. One would go from Union Station to Georgetown alone, while another route to the Cathedral would only go as far east as McPherson Square. This would make the routes more reliable since a very long route is hard to keep on time.

U Street and Howard: The Circulator from Rosslyn to Dupont Circle would continue past the circle, up 18th Street to U Street and then in a loop on 8th, Barry, and Florida at Howard. This gives DDOT an opportunity to put a Circulator stop under 300 feet from my house (or more likely about 500), which is of course the main reason this is the best extension. But seriously, the line with the extension would serve an estimated 1,790,000 rides a year, most of which won't be me, including a lot of people who don't ride Circulator today.

Congress Heights: The Potomac Avenue-Skyland route was a political creature, started by politicians who wanted the Circulator to go east of the river for appearances' sake. While more transit is welcome everywhere, and people in wards 7 and 8 absolutely deserve great transit service even at higher cost, improving existing buses (for example, by implementing these recommendations from Ward 7 transit experts) probably would have done more per dollar to help people.

The line is very long (the longest in the system) and has low ridership (but, actually, not as low as the Union Station-Navy Yard route, which goes through a lot of areas that just don't have very high density). It duplicates a lot of WMATA Metrobus service, and most of the riders along the route take transit to commute rather than for all-day car-free activity. (The fact that the waits between buses are long can't help, either.)

The council funded an extension to Congress Heights on the southern end, which DDOT feels will help the route by offering a "much stronger southern anchor" at a current (and growing) activity center.

Southwest Waterfront: The Union Station-Navy Yard line would continue just a little bit farther along M Street to Waterfront Metro and the growing activity center there.


All planned and future Circulator corridors. Image from DDOT.

Longer-term: The plan also lists several corridors for future service some more years out. One would restore a north-south Circulator between the Convention Center and the Waterfront (at least until a streetcar maybe plies that corridor). That route was part of the original Circulator but discontinued in 2011.

Another would connect Dupont Circle to Southwest Waterfront through the National Mall. Both this and the north-south line would give Mall tourists another way to get to interesting places that aren't actually on the Mall and spend some of their dollars at taxpaying DC businesses, as well as more ways to get to and from the Mall.

Finally, DDOT wants to study a line from Columbia Heights to the Brookland Metro (via Washington Hospital Center) and then down to NoMa. The areas in the middle of this corridor, like planned development at the McMillan Sand Filtration Site and Armed Forces Retirement Home, aren't yet all-day activity centers, but in the future they well could be.

Besides these, DDOT officials considered a wide variety of other routes like Adams Morgan to H Street, Dupont to Petworth, Fort Totten to Friendship Heights, H Street to Congress Heights, Tenleytown to Columbia Heights, and the Abe's to Ben's route some Foggy Bottom and Dupont leaders suggested.

DDOT didn't advance these because they duplicate existing Metrobus service, the activity centers don't have enough all-day demand, or otherwise don't meet the criteria for Circulator in particular. See page 66 of the plan for a detailed explanation for why DDOT didn't pick your particular Circulator idea.

Making these routes happen will of course require money. Phase 1 (the Mall, the Cathedral, U Street/Howard, Waterfront, Congress Heights, and splitting the east-west line) will require 23 buses and $8.7 million in operating subsidy. This budget season, the DC Council chose tax cuts over investing in transit; upcoming budget seasons will tell us what priority the next mayor and members of the DC Council put on giving residents high-frequency, easy-to-understand bus service to connect key centers across the city.

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