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Which Metro stations are the most balanced?

Ever wondered if any Metro stations come close to having the same number of exits and entries during rush hour? Thanks Metro's newly-public ridership data, we can tell exactly how balanced each station is.


During the AM peak period, the most balanced station is Bethesda. Almost exactly the same number of people enter the station as exit. Pentagon, Brookland, King Street, and Mount Vernon Square round out the top five.

On Monday, we looked at stations based on how many riders boarded and exited in the AM peak. Union Station and Pentagon are the only stations that appear on both top 10 lists. This indicates that they are fairly balanced, with people riding to and from them at similar levels. Pentagon is the 2nd most balanced station, and Union Station is number 9.

Metro station balance: AM Peak
4King Street2,9862,7121.10
5Mt Vernon Square1,1571,3231.14
6Crystal City4,1054,9121.20
9Union Station9,71212,0301.24
"Balance" is the ratio of entries and exits, dividing the larger number by the smaller number.

Why is balance important? Balance can be an indicator that land use around the station is fairly well mixed.

At Bethesda, for example, many people live near the station, and walk there to get on trains headed downtown (or to other destinations). At the same time, many other commuters are headed to one of the many workplaces around the Bethesda stop.

The measure of balance isn't perfect, though. The #2 most balanced station is Pentagon, which is just about as far from being a livable community as a place can get. Many riders are headed to jobs at the Pentagon. But they're balanced out by a large number of riders changing from bus to rail at the massive bus hub there.

What about the other end of the spectrum? Here are the 10 least-balanced stations.

Metro station balance: AM Peak
78Branch Avenue4,82838012.7
80Judiciary Square4866,51513.4
81Farragut North1,23216,75413.6
83Arlington Cemetery2030314.9
86Federal Triangle2106,61731.5

Federal Triangle is by far the least balanced. For every 1 person entering the station during the AM peak, 31.5 people are exiting. That's almost twice as lopsided as the 84th and 85th ranked stations, Glenmont and Smithsonian.

Also of note, in the bottom 10 we can find several of the top stations for AM peak boardings and alightings. Vienna (entry #2), is the 10th-least balanced station; Huntington (entry #7) is the 8th least-balanced station. Farragut North, by far the busiest station for exits in the AM peak, is the 6th least-balanced station.

While these stations may have many passengers boarding or exiting in the morning rush, they're far from balanced.

Blue is the proportion of entries. Orange is the proportion of exits.

Overall, the average balance factor for the AM Peak is 5.8. That's the most imbalanced of any of the periods. The station with the balance factor closest to the average is Benning Road, with a balance of 5.8.

PM Peak
On average, the PM Peak period is more balanced than the AM Peak. The average balance factor for the afternoon rush hour is 3.1. The station closest to the average is West Hyattsville, with a balance factor of 3.2.

The imbalances during this period aren't as strong as they are during the morning. This is probably due to some riders from the suburbs coming into the city to attend entertainment venues or sporting events balancing out commuters.

Metro station balance: PM Peak
2National Airport1,8421,7811.03
7Dupont Circle6,7606,2821.08
8Navy Yard3,9454,2691.08
9Union Station12,56411,5881.08

While the order moves around a bit, 6 of the top 10 morning peak stations also appear on the top 10 most-balanced PM peak stations. The stations in both top 10s are: Bethesda, Pentagon, Brookland, Tenleytown, Ballston, and Union Station.

Metro station balance: PM Peak
77Shady Grove1,4578,3205.7
82Judiciary Square5,7787867.3
83Branch Avenue5804,3797.5
84Morgan Blvd1961,5587.9
85Federal Center SW4,2295118.3
86Federal Triangle6,6677848.5

Similarly, 6 stations from the bottom 10 AM peak stations are on the afternoon peak bottom 10. In both periods, Federal Triangle is the 86th most-balanced station, the bottom rank. However, it's a good deal more balanced in the PM peak than it was during the morning rush.

The other 5 stations appearing in both bottom 10 lists are: Vienna, Branch Avenue, Huntington, Judiciary Square, and Glenmont.


The midday period is not as polarized as the peak periods. In fact, the midday period is the most balanced period, with an average balance factor of 1.2. The closest station to the average balance factor is Morgan Boulevard, with a factor of 1.2.

The least-balanced station, Smithsonian, has twice as many exits as entries during this period. That's a far cry from the 31-fold difference at Federal Triangle during the morning peak.

This makes a good deal of sense, too. With the peak periods, people tend to be making complementary trips in the opposite peak. But in the midday period, many of those trips happen in both directions during the same period.

For example, someone running to lunch might take the train from Farragut North to Union Station and back, with the return trip balancing the first. A commuter on the other hand, might go from Vienna to McPherson Square in the morning, wouldn't return until the PM peak.

Metro station balance: Midday
1King Street1,7981,8181.01
3Federal Center SW1,1911,1601.03
4Arlington Cemetery9389741.04
5Eastern Market1,3491,2991.04
7Friendship Heights2,2142,0761.07
8Pentagon City3,5323,7821.07
9Judiciary Square2,0432,1891.07
10Dupont Circle3,7764,0551.07

The least balanced midday stations aren't that imbalanced.

Metro station balance: Midday
77Farragut North4,3085,8671.36
79West Hyattsville8786341.38
80Gallery Place4,4206,1521.39
81Dunn Loring9616871.40
82Metro Center5,0047,0851.42


Evenings are not as balanced as middays, but they are more balanced than either peak period.

The average balance factor for the evening period is 2.8. Capitol South, with a balance factor of 2.8, is the closest to the average balance factor.

Metro station balance: Evening
1Pentagon City2,5192,5131.003
4U Street1,7071,7791.04
5Mt Vernon Square6466741.04
7Friendship Heights1,2631,4341.14
8Eastern Market9421,0871.15
9King Street1,1191,3191.18

The least balanced evening stations range from a balance factor of 4.8 to 8.9. However, Arlington Cemetery station is at the bottom at least partially due to the station's early closure, and the fact that the Cemetery, the only thing within walking distance of the station, closes early, too.

Metro station balance: Evening
77Judiciary Square8141704.8
78Metro Center5,8971,2114.9
82Farragut West3,8757075.5
83Shady Grove4282,3505.5
84Farragut North4,5237755.8
85Federal Triangle1,1351288.8
86Arlington Cemetery159188.9

What are your thoughts about the station balance numbers?

Matt Johnson has lived in the Washington area since 2007. He has a Master's in Planning from the University of Maryland and a BS in Public Policy from Georgia Tech. He lives in Greenbelt. Heís a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners. He is a contract employee of the Montgomery County Department of Transportation. His views are his own and do not represent those of his employer. 


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This is an awesome analysis. I agree that balance indicates the mix of land uses around each station. I disagree that balance is a desirable goal.

One of the great things about cities is that they offer a mix of different kinds of places. It is this mix of places that directly contributes to unbalanced station use.

by Paul on Nov 29, 2012 10:17 am • linkreport

I love all the analysis and creative presentations of the data. I've really been enjoying these posts.

by Birdie on Nov 29, 2012 10:24 am • linkreport

The number of factors that change a station's balance is huge. Interesting analysis about Bethesda and Pentagon both being almost perfectly in balance at the AM peak but Bethesda for it's mixed uses, Pentagon because of the bus transfers. I also look at Bethesda Vs Silver Spring to point out commuting patterns. Silver Spring is probably about as balanced as Bethesda in a mix of uses, but has far more people entering than exiting. Silver Spring like Pentagon also is a larger destination for bus transfers, and i'd also be curious to see if a larger portion of Silver Spring commuters drive to work, or take other transit options like MARC and MTA commuter buses compared to Bethesda.

by Gull on Nov 29, 2012 10:26 am • linkreport

Interesting. I love this number crunching.

King St is proving that the Feds can drive counter-flow traffic to metro stops. It's the USPTO folks who provide that counter-flow traffic there. USPTO folks also favor King St over Eisenhower, which is arguably roughly the same distance from their office. Or it says something about the popularity of the Blue Line over the Yellow Line.

So, onto that new FBI complex at Franconia-Springfield!

by Jasper on Nov 29, 2012 10:26 am • linkreport

After thought: Medical Center shows the same.

by Jasper on Nov 29, 2012 10:27 am • linkreport

wrt balance - 1. from the urbanist perspective - while its true not every area needs to be balanced mixed use, the benefits to having a lot of them be that way are pretty strong. 2. From the narrower metrorail perspective - its very helpful to have lines (if not individual stations) be balanced - the folks commuting outbound to Dunn Loring, for example, add revenue to metro, and take vehicles off the road, for relatively low incremental cost to metro. Ditto the folks heading from DC to the Pentagon on what would otherwise be empty trains crossing back to NoVa, people heading out to Silver Spring. Of course not all exiters at suburban stations are reverse commuters, but many are.

by AWalkerInTheCity on Nov 29, 2012 10:30 am • linkreport

A balanced station area uses its capital investments -- the trains going in both directions, the escalators going in both directions, the parking lots -- more efficiently. Such areas have been the goal of a great many "polycentric" regional plans for many years now.

by Payton on Nov 29, 2012 10:40 am • linkreport

Thank you for this post. An "unbalanced" station like Glenmont (where I go) should make note of this and adjust the turnstiles and escalators accordingly. Instead, riders leave the train and lineup for the "up" escalator while the "down" goes unused (there is also a staircase nearby). At the turnstiles, we lineup again to swipe our cards as 4 of the 10 turnstiles are directed in-bound and are unused.

by bmfc1 on Nov 29, 2012 10:53 am • linkreport

Neat analysis! Looking forward to more of these, including weekend patterns.

On the station traffic balance, the more stations with an near even balance at the AM and PM peaks, the more efficient the system is in use of its peak capacity. Near empty cars running out to the end of the lines in the AM rush hour are not generating revenue until they make the return inbound trip. Building job centers clustered around some of the outer stations such as New Carrolton would make for a more balanced AM and PM traffic flow and improve cost recovery.

@Matt, have you looked at the station balances over the course of the entire day? Are there any stations that jump out as unexpectedly getting more exits or entrances over the combined 4 periods? Due to people walking, biking, or taking a bus to other stations?

by AlanF on Nov 29, 2012 10:54 am • linkreport

Given that we are using smart cards, perhaps WMATA could tweak fares to reflect entrance and exit balance. Pay less to reverse commute. This would lead to more balanced development at each site.

by SJE on Nov 29, 2012 11:04 am • linkreport

Interesting to see that Waterfront, Rosslyn, and Crystal City all have a very balanced mix of uses, despite the fact that much of the GGW readership would likely consider these areas to be poorly planned.

Also, even though they're not great, I'm surprised to see that Eisenhower Avenue, Stadium-Armory, and Navy Yard are as balanced as they are (I've always characterized S-A as being primarily residential, which is apparently wrong).

by andrew on Nov 29, 2012 11:19 am • linkreport

Remember that there can be other confounding factors. Balance does not mean that an area has diverse land uses. It's just an indicator that it could be.

Keep in mind that Pentagon is almost perfectly balanced, and we know that it does not have a mix of uses.

by Matt Johnson on Nov 29, 2012 11:27 am • linkreport

Very interesting stuff. Please do more of this. Might be tough to fit on your map, but scaling the pie charts to station volume would provide perspective to each location's relative use. Keep up the good work.

by grant on Nov 29, 2012 11:37 am • linkreport

IRS moved most employees to New Carrollton 12 years ago because of the Metro. That's thousands of employees. There are other office buildings there too.

If the imbalance is still so great in New Carrollton it seems that most workers there must be driving.

So the goal is not only to encourage new offices at imbalanced Metro stations but also to encourage transit use by workers there.

by Tom Coumaris on Nov 29, 2012 11:38 am • linkreport

An "unbalanced" station...should make note of this and adjust the turnstiles and escalators accordingly.

Unfortunately, I can't conceive of Metro ever doing this. It would make too much sense.

by Vicente Fox on Nov 29, 2012 11:42 am • linkreport

These are great maps; it's easy to tell where the area's job centers are (at least the ones on Metro). I'm particularly impressed by how balanced White Flint is - it still has a very suburban character, but it seems apparent that commuters are willing to take Metro to work there.


Regarding transit use in Bethesda vs. Silver Spring: I'm actually working on a post that discusses just that (next week, hopefully). Transit use is about the same in downtown Bethesda and downtown SS, at about 43% of all commuters, though it's higher in the neighborhoods surrounding DTSS (particularly in Long Branch & Takoma Park) than in those surrounding Bethesda.

by dan reed! on Nov 29, 2012 11:43 am • linkreport

@andrew, regarding Waterfront, I think the area as a whole isn't planned well, particualrly the actual waterfront. BUT, there are two sizable DC government buildings practically on top on the metro, as well as quite a few residential buildings within a 2 block radius. Volia, insant balance!

@Tom Coumaris, I don't know too much about New Carrolton and the IRS office out there. But how walkable is it? My admittedly few trips out there, and all the time I've driven by it, it seems to be a metro station stuck in the middle of tons of parking lots and high speed roads. Does the IRS building have parking readily available? I know for most people, if their option is metro+bus or metro+trudge through acres of parking and along roads that probably aren't maintained with ped facilities, OR drive, they're going to drive.

by Birdie on Nov 29, 2012 11:56 am • linkreport

@ Mat Johnson:Keep in mind that Pentagon is almost perfectly balanced, and we know that it does not have a mix of uses.

Really? It has offices, it has stores, it has a monument, and it is a massive transit center. Only missing thing is housing.

by Jasper on Nov 29, 2012 11:56 am • linkreport

@Tom Coumaris: If the imbalance is still so great in New Carrollton it seems that most workers there must be driving.

To be fair, this data shows Metrorail only, and even for people who aren't driving, Metrorail isn't really the easiest way to get to New Carrollton from nearby residential areas, it being the end of a line and all. Coming from most places in Prince George's County in particular, you'd probably be better off taking one of the umpteen thousand bus lines that go there (since that doesn't require you to go downtown for a transfer), and from a lot of other places in Maryland (and from Union Station) you could take MARC more easily.

by iaom on Nov 29, 2012 12:04 pm • linkreport

An urban node that doesn't have housing is fundamentally unmixed. It's the flaw that means most American CBDs are completely dead after 6:30 on an evening.

And all those stores at Pentagon don't do anything for anyone without a DOD pass. But stores and offices won't be enough to balance out Metro demand. Stores and offices are attractors (in the AM), not generators.

The only reason that Pentagon station has parity between entries and exits is the bus hub.

by Matt Johnson on Nov 29, 2012 12:07 pm • linkreport

and as for Crystal City and Rosslyn

yes A. both, esp I think Rosslyn, gets some bus transfers B the entire walkshed in both places is mixed use - crystal city has lots of apt buildings, as well as lots of office buildings - that does not contradict that the layout of the streets, the street friendliness of buildings, and the presence.absence of street front retail is poor. That said, both are improving, and ArlCo is pushing further improvement

by AWalkerInTheCity on Nov 29, 2012 12:13 pm • linkreport

Escalators will always favor the exiting-the-platform direction, since people usually arrive at the platform in a steady stream but leave the platform in pulses. Besides, Metro tells us that due to inertia, stopping and reversing an escalator causes extra wear and tear vs. just keeping it running in the same direction.

Faregates/turnstiles, though, should be easy to reprogram with the predominant flow of traffic.

by Payton on Nov 29, 2012 12:18 pm • linkreport

@ Matt Johnson: [This is a bit arguing to argue, admitted]

An urban node that doesn't have housing is fundamentally unmixed. It's the flaw that means most American CBDs are completely dead after 6:30 on an evening.

True. But the Pentagon does not die at night. There is no street life but that's mostly by lack of a street.

And all those stores at Pentagon don't do anything for anyone without a DOD pass.

True. But the massive majority of people at that stop do have a pass.

The only reason that Pentagon station has parity between entries and exits is the bus hub.

True. Well, and sluggers.

by Jasper on Nov 29, 2012 12:20 pm • linkreport

@Birdie: Does the IRS building have parking readily available? I know for most people, if their option is metro+bus or metro+trudge through acres of parking and along roads that probably aren't maintained with ped facilities, OR drive, they're going to drive.

That's not as big a problem for the IRS buildings, which are just across Ellin Road from the station's northwest-side entrance, while most of the giant parking lots are on the southeast side of the station. (The IRS buildings even have a big curving skywalk across Ellin Road connecting them directly to the station entrance.) But yeah, a lot of the other office jobs close to New Carrollton station, in the big office park along Garden City Drive and Corporate Drive, require a heck of a lot of hoofing it (or maybe a bus ride) across a really pedestrian-hostile environment to get from office to station. And I wouldn't even want to try walking from the station to the industrial employers along Ardwick Ardmore Road on the other side of Route 50, even though as the crow flies they're pretty nearby.

by iaom on Nov 29, 2012 12:23 pm • linkreport

Re: New Carrollton

There are three IRS buildings and a contractor building within a reasonable walk from the metro. That's it. No lunch options or retail or any other commercial activity. That's the primary explanation for the imbalance at that station.

While walkability isn't great on the North side of the metro, it's not terrible either. Most notably, there's a covered pedestrian bridge with escalators linking the station to the IRS campus. The two roads by the North side entrance are pretty quiet, although people drive faster than they should.

That said, the walkability of Annapolis Rd, which is the main commerical area nearby is pretty terrible. Walking to the office park about a mile from the South side of the station would take a hardy individual.

As for buses, I'm pretty sure hardly anyone is using a bus to get to work in NC. But, there's plenty of scope for people to metro from DC or VA to NC if there were more jobs there.

by Falls Church on Nov 29, 2012 12:41 pm • linkreport

@Jasper: True. But the massive majority of people at that stop do have a pass.

Doubtful. Half of the traffic through Pentagon are bus riders transferring to the rail system (AM Peak) and the reverse in the PM Peak. Right there you have half the riders at Pentagon without a DOD pass.

by MDE on Nov 29, 2012 12:47 pm • linkreport

the REASONS mixed use are good, in addition to creating balance on heavy rail transit facilities, is that it A. Make it possible for more people to walk/bike to work B. Creates better utilization of retail and other community facilities C. Livens the streetscape

At the Pentagon, unlike say Rosslyn, there IS no streetscape to liven so C does not really come into play. Such facilities as there are are designed with the Pentagon work force in mind - whether adding housing on say, the parking lots, would create a more desirable climate for Pentagon employees, is questionable. Given the way DOD works, making working there MORE desirable for DOD employees is probably not the highest priority for DOD. That you can't live in an apt on the parking lots and WALK to work at the Pentagon is a loss, and maybe not a trivial one. OTOH you CAN live in Pentagon City and walk from there - but then we are talking about a somewhat wider walkshed - OTOH Pentagon and Pentagon City stations are rather close together for non CBD stations.

by AWalkerInTheCity on Nov 29, 2012 12:54 pm • linkreport

Thanks iaom and Falls Church for your first-hand knowledge about New Carrolton and the surrounding area!

by Birdie on Nov 29, 2012 2:14 pm • linkreport

well, isn't the trick here to measure where metro balance actually translates into mixed use?

by charlie on Nov 29, 2012 3:30 pm • linkreport

> Balance can be an indicator that land use around the station is fairly well mixed.

For all the hoopla about new residents in the area (maybe they are two-car households), the Union Station figure is still a bit of a disappointment. Stampeding herds transfer into Metro there from MARC and VRE every morning, and *still* the exits stoutly outnumber entrances.

by Turnip on Nov 29, 2012 8:38 pm • linkreport

To bad there is not info on a month by month basis I would like to see the data for example

TenleyTown, Stadium Armory, Noma, U Street & Minnesota Ave stations when DC Public Schools are out since they have schools within 4-6 blocks from them

Tenleytown, Van Ness, Shaw, Foggy Bottom, Noma when college is not in session such as late December, Spring break, or when it is slower in the summer.

Since most riders use Smartrip, and then the DC student population uses the special passes wouldn't there be bus and rail data together for many riders. So that a more accurate view of total bus and rail trips together be included.

by kk on Nov 29, 2012 10:32 pm • linkreport

Thank you for using blue and orange this time, and not red+green. :-)

by Jack Love on Nov 29, 2012 11:10 pm • linkreport


I have been trying on their blog to get them to release more data on a regular schedule like a monthly basis.

Chicago has an open-data portal where every month they release ridership figures BY DAY for all the L stations and the bus routes. So you could really drill down ridership to specific events, or weather patterns, or something else.

London has given some researchers access to anonymized smart card data - so you can analyze specific user travel patterns, see where people transfer from one mode to another, etc. I don't expect that anything like that would ever be public in the US though.

by MLD on Nov 30, 2012 8:26 am • linkreport

With the closing and tearing down of the Navy Annex, there is an opportunity to add housing close to Pentagon. Unfortunately, having a constructive conversation about that involves convincing people that Arlington Cemetery should not have veto rights over land use planning in Arlington. Tough conversation to have.

Also, note that Arlington's planned trolleys will not serve Pentagon, which due to its status as a massive bus hub, results in an obvious and fatal flaw in the creation of a regional transportation network for off-Metro destinations; it's like if the designers of the Metro skipped Metro Center and Gallery place on the Red Line.

by Ryan on Nov 30, 2012 9:26 am • linkreport

Matt this is great. Thanks for doing this.

Clarendon is an example of a mix if retail, office, and residential, yet it's not as balanced during AM Peak as other mixed use stations. I used to work right at the metro station. I drove to work everyday because my former employer (like other employers in the building) paid my monthly parking pass and there was plenty of parking. However, if I chose to metro, my former employer would not provide transit benefits. Seems like Arlington has some work to do to encourage employers near Clarendon to provide transit benefits.

by Veronica O. Davis (Ms V) on Nov 30, 2012 9:51 am • linkreport

@Ms V

Your employer paid for a parking pass but wouldn't pay for transit benefits? That's screwed up.

by MLD on Nov 30, 2012 9:57 am • linkreport

Seems like Arlington has some work to do to encourage employers near Clarendon to provide transit benefits.

Sounds like time for parking cash-out!

Arlington encourages this, but obviously that is not as strong as CA's law that requires certain employers to offer employees the choice of a) a free parking space, b) a subsidized transit pass, or c) the cash value of either a) or b).

by Alex B. on Nov 30, 2012 10:04 am • linkreport

@MLD Yep. When I was there we lobbied the upper management to provide transit subsidies versus free parking. We even showed how it would save the company money. Now granted I haven't worked there in a few years, but I don't think the policy ever changed.

@Alex Interesting. Perhaps they need a different tactic. Either way everyone working in the building I was in had free parking. For someone like me who is pro-transit, it was hard to pass up free parking in exchange for having to pay out of pocket for transit.

by Veronica O. Davis (Ms V) on Nov 30, 2012 10:11 am • linkreport

@ Ms V: For someone like me who is pro-transit, it was hard to pass up free parking in exchange for having to pay out of pocket for transit.

Driving costs more than parking and gas. The most forgotten cost is write-off, which is somewhere between $0.10 and $0.25 per mile. Just divide the price of your car by the miles you expect to drive it.

by Jasper on Nov 30, 2012 12:47 pm • linkreport

@Jasper: I did that calculation. It was still cheaper round trip than metro round trip. If I had to pay parking, metro would've been cheaper. I don't work there nor have a car anymore so it's a moot point. I brought it up as a hypothesis for why Clarendon wasn't more balanced during AM peak given then mix of uses.

by Veronica O. Davis (Ms V) on Nov 30, 2012 1:14 pm • linkreport

@ Ms V:I did that calculation.

I figured. My comment was more a general service reminder than anything else.

by Jasper on Nov 30, 2012 2:38 pm • linkreport

@Alex - That parking cash-out idea is an interesting one that I think my neighborhood could benefit from. I work at a large office building near the Navy Yard that has free parking for employees, and I don't know a single person besides myself that doesn't drive there. I only live a mile away and enjoy the walk, but my coworkers say they would just drive if they lived as close as I do. I wonder if their commuting preferences would change if they could get cash back for not parking.

by Eastern Market on Nov 30, 2012 2:57 pm • linkreport

The information looks interesting. It shows people commute into the city via Metro. Not too earth-shattering. Look at daytime population and you'll see this pattern. People work in DC and live in suburbs. And the evening pattern is probably the mirror image with some anomalies for popular evening destinations. But why is "balance" the term of analysis? Who argues that that is a goal? Mixed land-use around a transit station. Sure but myopic. Commuters will drive and park at transit stations. The reach/service area for outer stations is greater.

by MBG on Oct 1, 2014 3:44 pm • linkreport

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