An urban park won't succeed with suburban edges
A large urban park may be an oasis where the city feels distant, but to succeed, a good large urban park also ties in well with neighborhoods at its borders. New York's Central Park does this well, as does Patterson Park in Baltimore. Druid Hill Park, to its northwest, does not.
The wide roads at the edges of Druid Hill Park break the park into fragments and are a barrier to the adjacent neighborhoods. Images from Google Street View.
The borders of Central Park are clearly defined. Pedestrians easily cross into it and there is food available on three corners.
However, at its edge, traffic engineers designed a tangle of speedy arterial roads with grassy medians not unlike route 175 that links Columbia, MD with Interstate 95. Unlike sprawling suburban Columbia, Druid Hill Park is surrounded by dense historic neighborhoods filled with row houses and apartments.
Big roads with fast moving traffic separate Druid Hill park from adjacent neighborhoods. Image from Google Maps.
Many of the people who live nearby do not own cars. The obese hard-to-cross roads do a good job of both being unpleasant for nearby neighbors and creating a barrier to accessing the park. Furthermore, the road slices into the park and leaves the park edges oddly fragmented.
The roads around the park have been engineered for speed to the detriment of nearby residents and families who might want to walk to the neighborhood park.
Compounding the problem, Druid Hill Park's many amenities, including the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, picnic pavilions, pool, athletic fields and courts, gardens, and playgrounds are buried deep in the center of the park. It is a long walk from the edge of the neighborhoods to the park's activity centers. To get to anything easily in the park, you have to drive.
Other large urban parks succeed where
Druid Hill's contemporary, Central Park in New York, did not abandon the urban street grid, and it functions well as both a neighborhood park and a destination.
The same goes for Patterson Park, five miles to the southeast of Druid Hill Park. It has a road network on its edges that work much better. Patterson Park is bordered by heavily trafficked Baltimore Street and Eastern Avenue, but these roads remain true to the urban street grid with regular T-shaped intersections.
All streets are only four lanes, including on-street parking. Traffic travels much slower. Crosswalks are more frequent. Neighbors can see ball fields, playgrounds, people enjoying the park right from their bedroom windows.
Patterson Park is much more intimate with its neighborhoods on all four sides. This design difference helps make Patterson Park, far more interwoven into the daily lives of the residents in the blocks across the street.
In Patterson Park, the activities in the park are easily viewed from bedroom windows, traffic is slow, and the roads are easily crossable. Photo by the author.
Design is psychology
Happy City author Charles Montgomery writes, "Cities that care about livability have got to start paying attention to the psychological effect that traffic has on the experience of public space." He explains that humans get anxious when speeds increase, because we know our bones cannot withstand a crash at more than 20 mph.
This makes places like the swift roads dividing Druid Hill Park with the neighborhoods of Reservoir Hill, Parkview, Liberty Square, and Park Circle unhappy places. It may also help explain why these neighborhoods' park-front real estate is so weak.
In 2010, Gerald Neily, writing in the Baltimore Brew, made some of the arguments made in this post. Since that time, very little has changed.
Cities and neighborhoods always have to evolve to prosper. The southern, western, and northern edge of Druid Hill Park are not working. The evidence is as clear as the vacant buildings and lots on the park's edge. New York's Central Park and Baltimore's Patterson Park can give direction on how to design the edge of a park in an urban setting. Druid Hill Park has unrealized potential to be a much better urban park. Retrofitting its suburban design will help.
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