Posts about LOS Mentality
The Montgomery Planning Department just recommended widening I-270 between Rockville and Clarksburg to 12 lanes, and adding two new lanes north of Clarksburg. The project would cost $3.8 billion, and would be a disastrous move for the County. The analysis relies on antiquated Level of Service analysis that downplays the side effects of the widening on sprawl, and ignores other alternatives such as pricing existing lanes which would alleviate congestion more cheaply and with much less damage.
Widening 270 would fuel the greatest expansion of auto-dependent sprawl in Montgomery County in over a generation. In 1980, foresighted Montgomery County leaders created the Agricultural Reserve, protecting 90,000 acres of farmland in the county's rural area. They created a program to transfer development rights from agricultural land to the denser, downcounty areas, to focus growth around existing infrastructure and existing jobs.
The Reserve excludes several large areas around Clarksburg and Germantown, and as the Planning Board notes, the County has added significant amounts of new housing there, as well as in Frederick County. However, the report ignores the huge, real effect of induced demand. New lanes would spur even more auto-dependent single-family homes out in these areas, homes very, very far from jobs. The development would put pressure on future County leaders to narrow the Reserve. And, most of all, it would drive even more sprawling growth in Frederick County.
Instead of seeing freeway expansion as driving demand, the Planning Department report simply takes development as static and focuses almost entirely on vehicular Level of Service (LOS). That's entirely the wrong measure.
Planning Staff have taken a small bite out of LOS-centrism in the proposed Growth Policy, recommending a change in the standard from D to E. But if you're only designing a transportation network with the goal of moving as many cars as possible as fast as possible, you end up with distorted answers. As the saying goes in transportation planning, "If you plan for cars and traffic, you get cars and traffic. If you plan for people and places, you get people and places."
The staff report dismisses the "no-build alternative" simply because it will not relieve congestion on the roadway. But it doesn't challenge the basic assumptions that speeding the drive from Frederick during rush hour should be the County's priority with $3.8 billion.
Worst of all, the staff never consider better options, like congestion charging on existing lanes. FHWA itself concluded that charging tolls on 270 during peak periods could move enough "discretionary" car trips to other times to alleviate the congestion problems on 270. Freeways behave somewhat paradoxically, where very small changes in demand cause big changes in congestion. Brookings just released a paper recommending a road-use pricing system.
Next: Another way to improve transportation in the corridor, for less than $3.8 billion.
The Washingtonian's "Blogger Beat" interviewed me about how we can make Greater Washington greater. Here are a few the topics we covered; check out the article for the more detailed responses.
Three reasons Washington is great: Walkable neighborhoods (and not just in DC), Metro, and resident engagement in local government.
Three ways it could be greater: More transit, more affordable housing, and transportation departments that aren't beholden to vehicular "level of service."
How would you fix Washington's traffic congestion problem? Priority bus corridors (in the short run).
Local leader you most wish you could fire: VDOT head Pierce Homer.
Purple Line or Silver Line? Both!
The best thing Barack Obama could do for Washington is: continue moving it toward [full] self-government, including the parks, prosecutors and judges, and voting rights.
how to spend the stimulus money. Maryland's John Porcari says they'll prioritize repairs over new projects, which is the right choice; VDOT head Pierce Homer wants to pay for repairs and some of the delayed projects, meaning potentially more freeway widenings or new freeways. Most likely, according to COG transportation planner Ronald Kirby, the Purple Line won't get any of this money. Update: Or maybe it will. Nobody really knows yet.
Screw nature: $200 million to repair the Mall's grass and keep the Jefferson Memorial from sinking underwater got cut from the stimulus. MoCo is cutting port-a-potties from Rock Creek Park in winter. And auto manufacturers have confirmed they plan to use public bailout money to keep suing the public for imposing higher clean air standards (via Ryan Avent).
Wires have their high points: That Bombardier wireless streetcar technology looks pretty cool but, writes Manifest Density, it'll probably be quite energy inefficient, likely wasting 20% of the power it consumes.
Thanks for reading, Examiner: It looks like the Examiner noticed GGW's weekend links about the emergency DMV rule for federal judges. Reporter Bill Myers called the DMV, who said "the emergency order sprang from 'a situation' recently," but wouldn't elaborate.
Cut transit and people stop riding transit: Maryland Politics Watch's Marc Korman reluctantly stopped riding MARC after recent service cuts (and falling gas prices). No word yet on whether he's changing his name to I-95 Korman.
Lose the LOS: Streetsblog SF explains how Level Of Service (LOS) warps traffic engineers' thinking and blocked important improvements in San Francisco. city and state planners are trying to dethrone LOS as the primary driver of traffic decisions.
Stop hatin' on K Street: Yglesias points out, "'K Street' is a synedoche for the influence peddling business, but it's also an actual street," which is definitely not full of lobbyists over in the Mount Vernon Triangle. "You wouldn't want to actually crack down on K Street, leaving out all the bad people on other streets but hitting the new Busboys & Poets coffee shop."
WABA to dedicate "ghost bike": Tonight at 6:30, WABA will be holding a press conference at Q and Connecticut,
the fatal intersection one block from the fatal intersection. They will install a "ghost bike" memorial to maintain a reminder of the tragedy, and also to warn drivers and cyclists alike to be careful.
How about a bike box? Bike boxes are painted areas that let cyclists move in front of cars waiting at an intersection. That ensures drivers see them and gives them the opportunity to go first. Perhaps we should install one on R? Thanks to commenter tony for the suggestion.
Absence of bike lanes is worse: No, it wouldn't have been better if we had no bike lanes. An L.A. doctor critically injured two cyclists with his car because he didn't want to share the road. Bike lanes let cyclists use the road network without feeling like they're going to be constantly honked at and berated for daring to drive on our streets.
Language matters: I was surprised by the resistance to changing our use of the word "accident" to refer to any car crash, whether someone was at fault or not. There are mountains of evidence that the language we use influences our thinking The West Palm Beach document also suggests "widening" and "narrowing" in place of "upgrading" and "downgrading". I actually had this debate with a traffic engineer in Prince George's County, where they have an "adequate public facilites" law that defines "public facilities" as only drivers' facilities. It forces the county or developers to widen roads and intersections whenever a new development is built, even if that harms pedestrians. At the public meeting, many participants and even the planners suggested narrowing certain roads, but the planners kept calling it "downgrading" the roads. "Downgrading" implies that it's worse. It may slow automobile traffic, but that might improve pedestrian safety, speed bicycles, or redirect traffic to a more desirable route.
The West Palm Beach document also suggests "widening" and "narrowing" in place of "upgrading" and "downgrading". I actually had this debate with a traffic engineer in Prince George's County, where they have an "adequate public facilites" law that defines "public facilities" as only drivers' facilities. It forces the county or developers to widen roads and intersections whenever a new development is built, even if that harms pedestrians. At the public meeting, many participants and even the planners suggested narrowing certain roads, but the planners kept calling it "downgrading" the roads. "Downgrading" implies that it's worse. It may slow automobile traffic, but that might improve pedestrian safety, speed bicycles, or redirect traffic to a more desirable route.
I'm confused by DDOT. With one hand, they propose changing one-way 15th Street in Logan Circle into two-way, which is a very good idea (some reasons and some more. From that it seems that DDOT understands how making cars move faster through our neighborhoods doesn't actually improve the quality of life.
But with the other hand, they propose making even more one-way streets in Georgetown, on 30th and 31st, and reversing 33rd Street. The Georgetown Transportation Study, which according to DDOT Ward 2 rep Chris Ziemann has "an emphasis on improving pedestrian and bicycle safety," nonetheless devotes most of its draft report to lane changes and the like.
Any bicycle options are only mentioned at the end of the report as part of alist of other options being considered, without the detail given to traffic improvements. There are some good ideas, such as bus bulb-outs (but only on a few side streets), traffic calming (but only speed bumps, not better mechanisms like making intersections into little tiny roundabouts or bulb-outs beyond just for buses), and widening sidewalks on M and Wisconsin (but only a little). Unfortunately, most of the good ideas are in the Long-Term section, and the bad ideas are in the Medium-Term section. Does this mean the planners in this study would make Georgetown worse before they make it better?
Despite the supposed focus on pedestrian and bicycle improvements, the report spends most of its ink on "Level of Service" (LOS) charts, which measure the average delay a car would wait at each intersection. This is a traditional tool of traffic planners, but thinking of transportation in these terms always leads to planners wanting to widen intersections and add lanes in ways that ultimately make an area more appealing to drive and less appealing to walk, pushing people toward driving over walking and further adding pressure to improve LOS.
So what's up with DDOT? It looks like there are a bunch of people who want to make neighborhoods more livable, other people who just want to make the cars move faster, and others who don't really know the difference. We need a DDOT head like NYC's Jeannette Sadik-Khan to firmly knock DDOT off the fence and over to being a progressive department. Right now, a DDOT study is like a box of partly moldy chocolates. You never know what you're going to get.
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